美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化
第1集 – 《建国史话》种类节目轮廓
第4集 – 美洲原住民人都市人及其文化
第5集 – 亚洲移民和印第安人的冲突
美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 ，VOICE ONE:
Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION — American history in VOA Special
English. I’m Shirley Griffith.
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.
The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.
And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.
The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
And I’m Steve Ember. Today history repeats itself. We start our series
over again. The last time we were at the beginning was in February of
two thousand three.
Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.
Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.
THE MAKING OF A NATION has a loyal following. In fact, listener research
finds it the most popular weekly program in VOA Special English.
As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.
It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.
It started in May of nineteen sixty-nine. Some people can remember when
THE MAKING OF A NATION was on the radio two times a week. People who
grew up listening to it are old enough now to listen with their own
children, or even their grandchildren.
The series tells a story. You can think of it not just as a series of
programs about the history of America and its people, but a series of
lessons. The subjects include exploration, revolution, civil war, social
and political change, the rise of industry and modern technology, and
In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.
Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
We ended last week at program number two hundred thirty-eight. The
subject was the presidential election of two thousand four. As time adds
to the story, we add new programs to the series.
When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.
These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.
In a sense, THE MAKING OF A NATION is a living history. Yet some of the
announcers are no longer even alive after all these years.
Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.
Here and there, too, the language may sound a little dated. For example,
some of the programs call black people Negroes. The use of that term may
be historically correct, but today the socially accepted name is
Technology has also changed. Today THE MAKING OF A NATION is not just on
radio but also on the Internet. At www.unsv.com, you can download MP3
files and transcripts. That way you can listen anytime or anyplace —
and read along. The site also includes archives, in case you ever miss a
These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.
The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
So how was the nation made? Why did loyal citizens rebel against one
nation and start their own, with different laws? THE MAKING OF A NATION
answers these and other questions about American history.
The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.
We tell the story of how a group of farmers, businessmen and lawyers
wrote a document they called the Constitution of the United States. On
September seventeenth, seventeen eighty-seven, delegates to the
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met one last time to sign it.
They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.
We explain why that document is still extremely important today — and
not just to Americans. Other governments have used it as a guide to
creating a modern democracy.
The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.
The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.
We explore why the writers of the Constitution included guarantees of
freedom of speech and religion, and the right to a fair and public
As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.
The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.
We also talk about the reasons for the American Revolution. One of the
most important was the idea that citizens of a country should have a
voice in its decisions.
The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.
British citizens in the American colonies paid taxes but had no
representatives in the British Parliament. Taxation without
representation led to growing anger in the American colonies.
The leaders of the revolt made important changes. They decided that any
free citizen could be a candidate for public office. And they made sure
that all free men who owned land and paid taxes were permitted to vote.
Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.
Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.
Not until nineteen twenty did the Constitution give women the right to
vote. Later, another change lowered the voting age for Americans from
twenty-one to eighteen.
Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.
One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.
Our programs explain the thinking behind these and other rights. They
also tell the story of each presidential election and presidency in
Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.
His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.
THE MAKING OF A NATION explores the good and the bad in American
history. For example, how could slavery exist in a nation whose people
declared that “all men are created equal” and with a right to life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness?
American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.
Many programs tell about the ideas and issues that have shaped the
United States. But most importantly, they tell about the people.
The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.
The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.
The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
For example, George Washington was a farmer before he became a military
commander. He became president because the citizens of the new country
wanted him as their first leader.
There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.
After two terms, he gave up power by his own choice. He once again
became a farmer and a private citizen. In his farewell address in
seventeen ninety-six, he warned Americans about the dangers of political
The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It told the
world that the people of this new country would no longer answer to a
The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.
The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.
As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.
Some of the people who formed the United States into a nation during the
seventeen hundreds were well educated and wealthy. Abraham Lincoln was
not. Still, he grew up to become president.
The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”
Abraham Lincoln became president during the eighteen sixties when
several southern states decided they no longer wanted to be part of the
United States. We tell how President Lincoln dealt with the terrible
Civil War that almost split the country apart.
Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.
The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.
Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
One of our programs deals with a speech he gave in the little town of
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. A great battle had been fought there.
President Lincoln had been asked to come to Gettysburg to say a few
words at the dedication of a military burial place.
No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.
The speech was short. President Lincoln honored the young men who had
died on that bloody battlefield. He also told the world why the terrible
war was being fought and why it was so important.
The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.
“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.”
Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.
Those words were just the first sentence. After President Lincoln wrote
the speech, he felt sad. He considered it a failure. In fact, his words
earned the respect of history. You can hear the full Gettysburg Address
in our programs about the life and presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.
Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.
The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.
THE MAKING OF A NATION touches on many different subjects. One of them
is social change. For example, we tell about the changes that took place
in the nineteen twenties, known as the Roaring Twenties.
Many young people decided they no longer needed to follow the
conservative traditions of their parents and grandparents. This was the
age of jazz.
Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.
The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
Reino de España定居者大致在1609年的时候骑马到了前日美利坚联邦合众国东东边新Mexicanos州的小镇圣菲。
But music and social values were not the only things changing. The
Roaring Twenties were also a time of fast-moving economic change.
Productivity grew sharply. At the same time, the divide between rich and
poor Americans grew wider.
It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.
In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.
By the end of the Roaring Twenties, the economy was ready to collapse.
Then, in October of nineteen twenty-nine, the stock market crashed. What
followed was an economic disaster worse than any the modern world has
By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.
Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.
We examine the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected
Americans and the rest of the world. We tell the story of people who
lost their jobs, their homes and their hope for the future.
Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.
As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.
Franklin Roosevelt was elected with a promise to bring the country out
of the Depression. On March fourth, nineteen thirty-three, he was
inaugurated to his first of four terms. He served longer than any other
president in American history. We discuss Roosevelt’s New Deal programs
and his leadership during World War Two.
George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.
But not all of the subjects on THE MAKING OF A NATION are so serious. We
also look at the history of American popular culture and subjects like
the rise of high technology. Something for everyone.
One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.
The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.
Today’s news is not only tomorrow’s history, it will also become part of
THE MAKING OF A NATION.
History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.
But for now, we start again from the beginning. I’m Shirley Griffith.
The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.
This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.
And I’m Steve Ember. Join us at this time next week and every week as we
go back in time. Listen on radio or online at www.unsv.com as we bring
you THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English.
Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.
And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.
This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.