美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 战争风云 美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

第1集 – 《建国史话》种类节目轮廓

第4集 – 美洲原住民人都市人及其文化

第5集 – 亚洲移民和印第安人的冲突

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 ,VOICE ONE:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION — American history in VOA Special
English. I’m Shirley Griffith.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

And I’m Steve Ember. Today history repeats itself. We start our series
over again. The last time we were at the beginning was in February of
two thousand three.

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

VOICE ONE:

化学家认为,美洲的当地人都市人是成百上千年前在结尾三个冰河时期来到美洲陆上的。考古学家从十分的冷的北部所在到亚洲的最南侧,都找到过他们的脚踏过的痕迹。

几眼下大家要描述一段令人悲痛的有趣的事。

THE MAKING OF A NATION has a loyal following. In fact, listener research
finds it the most popular weekly program in VOA Special English.

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

It started in May of nineteen sixty-nine. Some people can remember when
THE MAKING OF A NATION was on the radio two times a week. People who
grew up listening to it are old enough now to listen with their own
children, or even their grandchildren.

居住在不一样地方的本地人城里人,创制了友好特殊的言语、文化和宗派。每种原城里人部落的传说,都以美洲野史的根本组成都部队分,不过最为后人承认的,仍旧这五个在明天的美利哥中间定居的本地人部落。

亚洲定居者来到北美次大陆后,跟在此生活了成百上千年的原城市居民人都市人产生冲突,二者的宗派、信仰和文化差距变成了激烈的摩擦。

The series tells a story. You can think of it not just as a series of
programs about the history of America and its people, but a series of
lessons. The subjects include exploration, revolution, civil war, social
and political change, the rise of industry and modern technology, and
more.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

开国史话汇报了多个有关美利坚联邦合众国野史和赤子的轶事,从查究新陆地,到独立大战、南北战役、再到社政变迁,以至工业和今世科学技术的起来。

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
peaceful.

VOICE TWO:

1804年,Lewis和Clark指导的探险队到了印度洋。他们是观看大平原地区原住民部落的率先批受过教育的奥地利人,也是本地人首回放到的黄人。

在后天的北美陆地西部沿海,也正是未来美利坚联邦合众国四方之处,居住着相当多印第安人的部落,他们讲区别的言语,有些从事农耕,某个以狩猎为生,有些四处作战,有个别则热衷和平。

We ended last week at program number two hundred thirty-eight. The
subject was the presidential election of two thousand four. As time adds
to the story, we add new programs to the series.

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

In a sense, THE MAKING OF A NATION is a living history. Yet some of the
announcers are no longer even alive after all these years.

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

这几个群众体育相当多继承于今,个中包罗塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米Noel人和彻罗基人等等。

Here and there, too, the language may sound a little dated. For example,
some of the programs call black people Negroes. The use of that term may
be historically correct, but today the socially accepted name is
African-American.

Lewis和Clark等人达到落基山北边的时候,差不离六11个肖肖尼原住民城市居民正骑马向他们走来。他们活跃地记载了立时的情况。

VOICE ONE:

Technology has also changed. Today THE MAKING OF A NATION is not just on
radio but also on the Internet. At www.unsv.com, you can download MP3
files and transcripts. That way you can listen anytime or anyplace —
and read along. The site also includes archives, in case you ever miss a
program.

VOICE ONE:

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

VOICE ONE:

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.

第一群Australia移民过来北美陆上在此以前的非常多年,这几个印第安人群众体育就已经成立起了分别的知识和信仰。

So how was the nation made? Why did loyal citizens rebel against one
nation and start their own, with different laws? THE MAKING OF A NATION
answers these and other questions about American history.

我们的首先感应是,这一个人早已做好了应战的预备。他们都佩有震天弓,还某人拿着上面插着尖刀的竹竿。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

We tell the story of how a group of farmers, businessmen and lawyers
wrote a document they called the Constitution of the United States. On
September seventeenth, seventeen eighty-seven, delegates to the
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met one last time to sign it.

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.

白令海岸的印第安人还持有中度发达的贸易系统。讨论人士开采,北美四海的印第安部落曾从事广泛的物物调换。

小编们要介绍U.S.A.独立战斗的前因后果,叙述一堆山民、商人和律师是何等制订U.S.刑法,甚至1787年7月17号刑事诉讼法大会代表在温哥华签订刑事诉讼法的轶事。

他俩骑得快捷,有个别马背上看似并不曾人,细心看才会意识,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子上边,用马的人体做保险。

VOICE TWO:

We explain why that document is still extremely important today — and
not just to Americans. Other governments have used it as a guide to
creating a modern democracy.

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

我们要表明米利坚行政法为啥于今依旧特别最首要,成为不菲国度建设今世民主的范本。

那一个马的随身画着有滋有味标图案,后来咱们才掌握,每一种图案有两样的意味,对马的全体者有特异的含义。

亚洲人和北美黄海岸印第安人之间第贰回有记载的走访爆发在十一世纪。那时,法兰西共和国和西班牙王国Bath克地区的渔夫横濿印度洋,在北美南部沿海地段寻找鲸鱼。他们在岸上架设不经常驻地,日常跟地面的印第安人沟通货物,还雇他们办事,两方都以为这种关联挺不错。

VOICE TWO:

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
rider.

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

U.S. Constitution

比方说,在那之中一个人是应战总指挥,另二个在打仗中杀死过敌人,此中一种图案能珍爱马匹和骑手的平安。

澳大麦迪逊渔民也曾多次试图在本土成立永世性定居点,不过都因为不堪冬季的严寒而以失败告终。

U.S. Constitution

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

We explore why the writers of the Constitution included guarantees of
freedom of speech and religion, and the right to a fair and public
trial.

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

我们要解析United States行政诉讼法的起草者为啥要把言论自由、宗教自由和担任公开公正审理的职务写进国际法里。

这么些肖肖尼骑手走近后,见到我们不象要上阵的指南,于是放缓了步子,但如故相当的小心。Lewis举起贰头手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头脑也做出同样的手势,做出回答。双方继续靠拢。

1620年,欧洲的第一群永世性市民来到了台北爱尔兰地区。他们希望跟印第安人友好共处。他们供给从印第安人这里换取食物。他们还要也知晓地理解,本身弱小,一旦产生冲突,根本不是印第安人的对手。

We also talk about the reasons for the American Revolution. One of the
most important was the idea that citizens of a country should have a
voice in its decisions.

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
friend.

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

British citizens in the American colonies paid taxes but had no
representatives in the British Parliament. Taxation without
representation led to growing anger in the American colonies.

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的服装,非常多是鹿皮或白牛皮。他们的毛衣有例外的摄影,也会有区别的情致,能够展现某一个人参预过战争、多次临场捕获马匹的偷袭行动,或是救过朋友的人命。

可是,比异常快,难题就不可防止地现身了。双方对土地的两样理念引起了高大的争辨,带给了随后几百余年都心有余而力不足搞定的难点。

大家还要切磋美利坚联邦合众国独立大战的原由。这时候,美国殖民地上的大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国男人纵然交税,但在大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国议会里却未有表示席位。”纳税无代表”的场地引起了民愤。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

The leaders of the revolt made important changes. They decided that any
free citizen could be a candidate for public office. And they made sure
that all free men who owned land and paid taxes were permitted to vote.

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

U.S.A.独立战斗的魁首们做出重大改造,规定凡是自由人都足以加入公职的公推,何况富有土地何况纳税的自由人都有权投票。

Lewis冲这个人笑笑,再次做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出相符的手势。刘易斯和肖肖尼头领语言不通,不过能够透过手势进行调换。

对此亚洲定居者来说,土地的显要性非同一般。在United Kingdom等欧洲国度,土地代表财富,具备庞大土地能给一人带给庞大的财物和权力。

Not until nineteen twenty did the Constitution give women the right to
vote. Later, another change lowered the voting age for Americans from
twenty-one to eighteen.

VOICE TWO:

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

但甘休四十世纪七十年份,民法通则才给与女人投票权。后来的一项更改案又把美利坚同同盟者际信资公司票的法定年龄从24周岁减低到了18岁。

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.

到来北美次大陆的不菲市民都以亚洲的穷人,属于个别宗教派别,根本一点都不大概持有本人的土地。他们过来新陆地后,发掘这里的土地好像根本就平素不全体者。

Our programs explain the thinking behind these and other rights. They
also tell the story of each presidential election and presidency in
American history.

一个年轻的肖肖尼人解放下马,他身形高大强健,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发后边还应该有一根很短的羽毛。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

VOICE ONE:

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.

大不列颠及英格兰联合王国的商店要求吸引落户者到新陆地去,于是就用土地作为奖赏。对于广大人的话,那实在是梦想成真,成了他们转移生活的机会,土地让他们有机会积累财富和权限。

THE MAKING OF A NATION explores the good and the bad in American
history. For example, how could slavery exist in a nation whose people
declared that “all men are created equal” and with a right to life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness?

她的手臂上划着超级多少长度线,每条线意味着着一场战役。然而此番跟大家的面前境遇,双方并从未接触。

VOICE ONE:

建国史话并不规避美国历史上不好的一面包车型地铁东西。比方说,在三个宣称”人人生而同一”,有生活、自由和追求幸福的权利的国度里,怎么又会隐忍奴隶的存在吗?

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

Many programs tell about the ideas and issues that have shaped the
United States. But most importantly, they tell about the people.

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.

不过,美洲的印第安人却感到,土地不归属任哪个人,是我们齐声享受的财物。他们认为,任何人都能够在一片土地上住下去,种庄稼,以此养家活口。

开国史话主要讲的是U.S.A.公民。

(我们在前多个钟头的开国史话中讲到了Lewis和Clark的探险队第三次碰着原住民部落–肖肖尼人的景观。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上无数本地人部落中的二个。那一个群体的活着、文化和社会形态都满含大平原的风味。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

George Washington

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
States.

印第安人活着在宇宙空间里,掌握土地和四周的情况,并不想改动大自然。他们并不是太费力就会生存得很好。

George Washington

截止前天,大平原依然广大,固然是坐在时速100英里的车里,要穿越大平原也要全方位两日的命宫。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥合众国,东靠阿肯色河,西至落基山脉,是美利坚联邦合众国的主导所在。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.

For example, George Washington was a farmer before he became a military
commander. He became president because the citizens of the new country
wanted him as their first leader.

There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

无论是是农耕依然狩猎,他们每过几年就能换三个位置,让土地有时机休耕,让动物的数目得以三回九转追加。印第安人潜移暗化自然生态规律,让自然界为和煦劳动。

After two terms, he gave up power by his own choice. He once again
became a farmer and a private citizen. In his farewell address in
seventeen ninety-six, he warned Americans about the dangers of political
parties.

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,别的的地点则是一望无际的草地。

VOICE TWO:

比方,美利坚合众国立国管辖George·Washington领导独立大战早先是农场主,卫冕两届总统后,他主动放任权力,又回到做她的农场主。他在1796
年的拜别演讲里,对U.S.A.政府政治的一决雌雄提出了警戒。

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It told the
world that the people of this new country would no longer answer to a
European ruler.

The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.

在台北爱尔兰地区安土重迁的首先批亚洲人数量有限。他们渴望获得土地。由于土地财富丰裕,所以印第安人对此并不担忧,双方基本上能用天伦叙乐。印第安人还教会了澳洲移民耕种和生存的技艺。

VOICE TWO:

草坪养肥了奶牛,水牛是大平原原住民印第安人文化的中坚要素。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

Abraham Lincoln

The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.

印第安人未有想到的是,澳大汉诺威定居者要把土地据有,对他们的话,那是无缘无故的,就就如要侵夺空气和云朵同样匪夷所思。

Abraham Lincoln

红牛不止为印第安人提供了食物,也是大平原地区当先五成印第安人事教育派的重大片段。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

Some of the people who formed the United States into a nation during the
seventeen hundreds were well educated and wealthy. Abraham Lincoln was
not. Still, he grew up to become president.

The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”

寒暑易节,踏上北美新大陆的澳大多哥洛美联邦定居者不断追加,他们占用的土地也更扩大。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把客人和猛兽挡在外部,并须求印第安人实际不是入侵他们的土地。

美利哥广大开国新秀都以有钱人,受过优异教育,但美国南北战斗之间的总理Lincoln却不要出生在具备的家庭。

苏人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必得品,都能从水牛的身上找到。此外二个印第安人群众体育把红牛称做“小编的家和衣食父母。”

VOICE ONE:

Abraham Lincoln became president during the eighteen sixties when
several southern states decided they no longer wanted to be part of the
United States. We tell how President Lincoln dealt with the terrible
Civil War that almost split the country apart.

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

他十一世纪八十时代任职时期,西边的多少个州决定脱离出来,差十分少儿变成国家的自相残杀,我们要温故知新Lincoln是怎样处理本场国内大战的。

The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.

澳大圣克Russ移民和北美印第安人里面包车型客车别的一大主题材料出在宗教上。在新英格兰定居的亚洲人都以全力以赴的基督徒。他们视伊斯兰教为独一的归依,感觉全体人都应该信仰基督。但是他们发掘,印第安人对佛教并不感兴趣,也不计划改动自身的笃信。

VOICE ONE:

牛背上厚厚的皮能够用来做帐蓬,其余一些的皮能够做衣服和毯子,牛骨头能够做工具,白牛身上的别的市方都不会被萧疏掉。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
anything.

One of our programs deals with a speech he gave in the little town of
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. A great battle had been fought there.
President Lincoln had been asked to come to Gettysburg to say a few
words at the dedication of a military burial place.

No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.

比比较多北美洲定居者由此认为,既然印第安人不是耶教徒,那他们就不值得信任。南美洲定居者认为,印第安人没有宗教信仰,所以是凶狠的人群。

大家就要节目中介绍Lincoln盛名的盖茨堡演说。

从未有过人理解,Lewis境遇肖肖尼人的时候,北美陆上上到底有微微头水牛,行家预计或者有四千万到八千三百万头左右。

VOICE TWO:

The speech was short. President Lincoln honored the young men who had
died on that bloody battlefield. He also told the world why the terrible
war was being fought and why it was so important.

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.”

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.

澳洲市民不晓得的是,美洲本地人都市人实际是可怜忠厚的,他们相信无形的神仙。他们生活在天体中,相信宇宙万物相互依存,全部部落都有向宇宙的成立者祈福的仪式,他们在平时生活中总拜见到宇宙成立者留下的印迹。

演讲一上来是,”八十五年前,我们的二叔在此个新大陆上成立了一个新江山,它孕育于自由之中,实践人人生而同一的条件。”

除此以外一种动物也对大平原印第安部落的知识起到了关键功效。那时候的本地人印第安人把这种动物叫做大狗,其实她们说的就是马。

VOICE ONE:

Those words were just the first sentence. After President Lincoln wrote
the speech, he felt sad. He considered it a failure. In fact, his words
earned the respect of history. You can hear the full Gettysburg Address
in our programs about the life and presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

Lincoln写完那篇演讲稿后,以为特不佳过,以为写得非常受挫,可是那篇讲话却经住了历史的考验,一贯流电传到前不久。

匈牙利人十七世纪来到几眼前的美利坚合众国西边此前,北美新大陆上本来从不马。原城市居民印第安人都以步行狩猎和行动的,餐风宿露拾壹分费劲,更不要讲捕猎白牛了。

病痛也给Australia移民和美洲印第安人带给了摩擦。Australia移民把天花等即时亚洲布满的病痛带到了美洲次大陆。

VOICE TWO:

The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

THE MAKING OF A NATION touches on many different subjects. One of them
is social change. For example, we tell about the changes that took place
in the nineteen twenties, known as the Roaring Twenties.

马的现身深透改造了他们的生活,给她们提供了通行和平运动送的平价,也让追踪和狩猎水牛变得尤其简约了。有了马,印第安人就能够对外国的敌人发动进攻,然后安全回到。具有马匹的数据,一度成为权衡部落财富的正统。

这个病毒是美洲本地人城里人根本都没据说过的,他们的免疫性系统完全未有抵抗技术,非常多群众体育被污染后,死得多少个不剩。

Many young people decided they no longer needed to follow the
conservative traditions of their parents and grandparents. This was the
age of jazz.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

建国史话涉及米利坚野史的全套,个中一个首要领域是社会的变革。比如,大家要介绍六十世纪七十年间所谓”吵闹的四十年间”,那时,比超级多青少年感觉温馨不要再依据父母、祖父母保守的古板理念了,那也是爵士时代。

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.

VOICE ONE:

Reino de España定居者大致在1609年的时候骑马到了前日美利坚联邦合众国东东边新Mexicanos州的小镇圣菲。

北美新大陆东边沿海各州的欧洲移民和印第安人涉嫌的开采进取大同小异。他们一齐先都能万事胜意,交流各样物质资源。

But music and social values were not the only things changing. The
Roaring Twenties were also a time of fast-moving economic change.
Productivity grew sharply. At the same time, the divide between rich and
poor Americans grew wider.

It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

可怜时代的变通并不局限于音乐和社会价值理念,”喧嚷的八十年间”相同的时候也是占实惠巨变的时日,分娩功效肯定升高,贫穷和富有分歧也日益严重。

不曾人驾驭,圣菲的本地人都市人是怎么获得第一匹马的,可能他们是用东西换的,只怕是鼓动进攻抢来的。重要的是,没过多久,超多印第安部落都从头购买销售和破获马匹了。

唯独随着年华的推移,危害迟早会发生,要么是有个别澳国移民必要印第安人不要踏上她的土地,要么是有些亚洲定居者或是某些印第安人被残害,使恐惧逐步替代了友情,在那之中一方会以为相当受了对方的袭击,并奋起还击,历史上的“Philip王战役”正是三个很好的例子。

By the end of the Roaring Twenties, the economy was ready to collapse.
Then, in October of nineteen twenty-nine, the stock market crashed. What
followed was an economic disaster worse than any the modern world has
ever known.

By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.

VOICE ONE:

到”喧嚷的四十年间”
截至前,U.S.A.经济一度走到了崩溃的边缘。1926年7月,股票市镇崩盘,引发了大萧疏–今世社会最要紧的二遍经济灾荒。

到1750时代的时候,大平原上的享有部落都有了马,并且这一个印第安人成了驯养、演练和骑马的大方之家。

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

We examine the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected
Americans and the rest of the world. We tell the story of people who
lost their jobs, their homes and their hope for the future.

Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.

马塔卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的特首,外国人称她为“Philip王”。次轮澳洲定居者完全都是靠了万帕诺亚格部落的补助,才走过了第多个八月。万帕诺亚格部落向澳洲定居者提供食品,还教会她们种植小麦,双方天伦叙乐了有个别年。

VOICE TWO:

大平原地区的印第安人,五周岁学骑马,长大之后,每一个年轻人都有少数匹马,分别用于专业、狩猎和战争。贰个印第安硬汉的打响在超大程度上要在于他和她的坐驾的周详协作。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

Franklin Roosevelt was elected with a promise to bring the country out
of the Depression. On March fourth, nineteen thirty-three, he was
inaugurated to his first of four terms. He served longer than any other
president in American history. We discuss Roosevelt’s New Deal programs
and his leadership during World War Two.

VOICE TWO:

而是好景非常短,彼此间的毛骨悚然和贫乏精晓星罗棋布。Mata卡姆的兄弟死于一种Australia病痛,Mata卡姆以为那都是亚洲人的错。他还亲眼目击了都市人给土地带给的成形,认为她们是在摧毁这片土地。

Frank林·Roosevelt公投总统时,承诺要指导U.S.走出大荒废。一九三三年10月4号,罗斯福宣誓就职,后来产生U.S.A.野史上任期最长的一个人总统。我们要介绍有名的罗斯福新政的源委,以至他在第三次世界大战中表明的管理者成效。

George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.

VOICE TWO:

But not all of the subjects on THE MAKING OF A NATION are so serious. We
also look at the history of American popular culture and subjects like
the rise of high technology. Something for everyone.

卡森林是美利坚合营国最初美术大师,他到过西方的大队人马地点,画了重重形容印第安人的小说,据他说,大平原上的印第安人是社会风气上最卓越的骑手,印第安人把手放在马身上的瞬,就和马融合为一了。

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

可是,建国史话也不全部是体面的话题。我们也要温故知新美利坚合营国文化的历史变动。

VOICE ONE:

互相间危害持续发生,一名跟定居者住在一齐的印第安基督徒被杀,那成了最终的导火索。亚洲城市居民发起还击,打死八个印第安人。大战箭在弦上,从1675年起来,持续了临近七年。本场战火最棒冷酷,双方都有好四人被打死。商量职员以为,前后相继一共有四百四个澳大布尔萨联邦定居者被打死,还会有多达七千名美洲本地人城里人在矛盾中遇难。

VOICE ONE:

The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.

VOICE ONE:

Today’s news is not only tomorrow’s history, it will also become part of
THE MAKING OF A NATION.

褐牛和马匹对大平原地区的印第安人来讲任重先生而道远,马的面世简化了狩猎工作,让印第安人能把越多的时间用来美化生活,他们开首在时装和马用的毯子上设计图案,纵然是最常用的物料上也现身了画画设计。

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.

后日的资源信息不独有是前几天的野史,也会成为建国史话的一有个别。

VOICE TWO:

历文学家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是Philip王大战真正的被害人。他们并未卷入战祸,也从不支持战斗的任何一方,然则,欧洲定居者因为出于对印第安人的谈虎色变,差相当的少杀死了富有纳拉干西特人。

But for now, we start again from the beginning. I’m Shirley Griffith.

The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

VOICE TWO:

白种定居者的来到,标记着美洲印第安人奶牛和马匹文化的完毕。定居者不指望奶牛破坏他们的谷物,于是从头宰杀红牛。到了1885年的时候,大平原地区的印第安人民代表大会都都早就被赶来了保留地上居住。

辛亏这里种恐惧、缺少精通和不愿迁就的周旋心理,创设了美洲次大陆上澳大阿伯丁城里人跟原市民印第安人的涉嫌。

And I’m Steve Ember. Join us at this time next week and every week as we
go back in time. Listen on radio or online at www.unsv.com as we bring
you THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

成千上万后续于今的群落都在冥思苦想保留自个儿的守旧文化,他们经过艺术、音乐和衣饰,让对美洲历史做出过重大进献的友善祖辈的文化流传下去。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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