美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 战争风云 第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

科学家认为,美洲的土著居民是数千年前在最后一个冰河时代来到美洲大陆的。考古学家从寒冷的北部地区到南美洲的最南端,都找到过他们的足迹。

今天我们要讲述一段令人痛心的故事。

英国是第一个跟西班牙争夺新大陆的欧洲国家。伊丽莎白女王从十六世纪七十年代就开始支持对新大陆的探险,不过,由于英国的力量比较薄弱,所以这种争夺最初并不是正面公开的。

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
England.

居住在不同地区的土著居民,创造了自己独特的语言、文化和宗教。每个土著部落的故事,都是美洲历史的重要组成部分,但是最为后人认可的,还是那些在今天的美国中部定居的土著部落。

欧洲定居者来到北美大陆后,跟在那里生活了几千年的土著居民发生冲突,二者的宗教、信仰和文化差异造成了剧烈的摩擦。

英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,但是没能建立长期定居点,他本人也在返回英国的途中去世。

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
peaceful.

吉尔伯特的兄弟雷利爵士继续努力,派遣多艘船只到北美东海岸探险,他把登陆的地方命名为Virginia维吉尼亚,纪念英国终身未婚的伊丽莎白女王。

1804年,刘易斯和克拉克率领的探险队到了太平洋。他们是见到大平原地区土著部落的第一批受过教育的美国人,也是土著人第一次见到的白人。

在今天的北美大陆东部沿海,也就是现在美国所在的地方,居住着很多印第安人的部落,他们讲不同的语言,有些从事农耕,有些以狩猎为生,有些四处征战,有些则热爱和平。

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

1585年,大约100名男子在今天美国北卡罗来纳州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。这些人一年后返回英国,另外一群人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,这次来的人里多了妇女和儿童。然而,雷利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年救援物资终于抵达的时候,一个定居者都找不到了。

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

这些部落很多延续至今,其中包括塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米诺尔人和彻罗基人等等。

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

刘易斯和克拉克等人到达落基山东侧的时候,大约六十个肖肖尼土著居民正骑马向他们走来。他们生动地记载了当时的情景。

VOICE ONE:

历史学家至今不能确定到底发生了什么事情。有研究显示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了当地的印第安人部落。

VOICE ONE:

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

VOICE TWO:

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.

第一批欧洲移民来到北美大陆之前的很多年,这些印第安人部落就已经建立起了各自的文化和信仰。

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

我们的第一反应是,这些人已经做好了战斗的准备。他们都佩有弓箭,还有些人拿着顶端插着尖刀的杆子。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,主要是因为英国1588年遭到了西班牙海军的攻击。西班牙的菲利普国王决定入侵英国,但是英国舰只的抵抗,外加强烈风暴的影响,使西班牙的进攻没有得逞。西班牙从此再也无法阻挡英国的海上探险了。

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.

东海岸的印第安人还拥有高度发达的贸易体系。研究人员发现,北美各地的印第安部落曾从事广泛的物物交换。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

他们骑得飞快,有些马背上好像并没有人,仔细看才会发现,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子下面,用马的身体做掩护。

VOICE TWO:

但是英国发现,要供养如此遥远的殖民地,花销实在太大。因此,伊丽莎白女王停止了向新大陆的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英国才开始认真地在美洲大陆上建立殖民地。

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

VOICE ONE:

这些马的身上画着五颜六色的图案,后来我们才知道,每个图案有不同的意思,对马的主人有特殊的意义。

欧洲人和北美东海岸印第安人之间第一次有记载的会面发生在十六世纪。当时,法国和西班牙巴斯克地区的渔民横穿大西洋,在北美东部沿海地区寻找鲸鱼。他们在岸上架设临时营地,经常跟当地的印第安人交换物品,还雇他们干活,双方都觉得这种关系挺不错。

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
rider.

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

1606年,英国的新国王詹姆斯一世批准两家公司在维吉尼亚建立殖民地。

比如说,其中一个人是战斗总指挥,另一个在战斗中杀死过敌人,其中一种图案能保护马匹和骑手的安全。

欧洲渔民也曾多次试图在当地建立永久性定居点,但是都因为受不了冬天的寒冷而以失败告终。

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
world.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

伦敦公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名定居者,这些人1607年五月抵达,后来创建了英国在新大陆的第一个永久性殖民地詹姆斯镇。

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.

这些肖肖尼骑手走近后,看到我们不象要打仗的样子,于是放慢了步伐,但还是十分小心。刘易斯举起一只手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头领也做出同样的手势,做出回答。双方继续靠拢。

1620年,欧洲的第一批永久性定居者来到了新英格兰地区。他们希望跟印第安人和平共处。他们需要从印第安人那里换取食物。他们同时也清楚地知道,自己势单力薄,一旦发生冲突,根本不是印第安人的对手。

然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者出师不利,因为没有及时播种,所以没过多久粮食就吃完了。他们又缺乏农耕和建筑技能,第一个冬天下来,詹姆斯镇的居民死亡过半。

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
friend.

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

VOICE TWO:

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的衣服,大多是鹿皮或水牛皮。他们的衬衣有不同的图案,也有不同的意思,可以显示某个人参加过战斗、多次参加捕获马匹的突袭行动,或是救过朋友的性命。

然而,很快,问题就不可避免地出现了。双方对土地的不同看法引起了巨大的分歧,带来了随后几百年都无法解决的问题。

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

伦敦的商人们对殖民地艰苦的生活一无所知,他们一心希望定居者去寻找黄金,探索当地的河道,希望找到通往东方的水路。其中一名定居者知道这是错误的。他的名字叫约翰·史密斯。他帮定居者盖房子,向印第安人学种庄稼,然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者每年还是继续死于疾病、饥饿和印第安人的袭击。

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.

刘易斯冲这些人笑笑,再次做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出同样的手势。刘易斯和肖肖尼头领语言不通,但是可以通过手势进行交流。

对于欧洲定居者来说,土地的重要性非同小可。在英国等欧洲国家,土地意味着财富,拥有大批土地能给一个人带来巨大的财富和权力。

在1606年到1622年间,伦敦公司一共向维吉尼亚送去了六千名定居者,其中四千多人都没能活下来。

VOICE TWO:

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

VOICE ONE:

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.

来到北美大陆的很多定居者都是欧洲的穷人,属于少数宗教派别,根本不可能拥有自己的土地。他们来到新大陆后,发现这里的土地好像根本就没有主人。

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.

一个年轻的肖肖尼人翻身下马,他身材高大强壮,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发后面还有一根很长的羽毛。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

历史学家说,如果不是当地波瓦坦印第安人的帮助,来自英国的定居者恐怕一个也活不下来。印第安人给他们食物,教他们如何在树林里生活,还告诉他们如何种庄稼,如何盖房子。

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.

英国的公司需要吸引定居者到新大陆去,于是就用土地作为奖赏。对于很多人来说,这无疑是梦想成真,成了他们改变生活的机会,土地让他们有机会积累财富和权力。

The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.

他的胳膊上划着很多长线,每条线代表着一场战斗。但是这次跟我们的遭遇,双方并没有兵戎相见。

VOICE ONE:

这些定居者接受了印第安人的帮助,但后来又依靠武力抢夺印第安人的东西。1622年,当地的印第安部落为维护自己的土地向定居者发动袭击,打死了340个定居者。定居者发动反击,彻底摧毁了居住在维吉尼亚沿海的印第安部落。

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.

然而,美洲的印第安人却认为,土地不属于任何人,是大家共同分享的财富。他们觉得,任何人都可以在一片土地上住下来,种庄稼,以此养家糊口。

这些定居者意识到,他们必须自己自足,不能依靠别人。1624年,詹姆斯镇已经初具规模,甚至开始通过种植和销售一种新的作物–烟草–来盈利了。

(我们在前一个小时的建国史话中讲到了刘易斯和克拉克的探险队第一次遇到土著部落–肖肖尼人的情景。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上众多土著部落中的一个。这些部落的生活、文化和社会形态都带有大平原的特色。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

VOICE TWO:

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
States.

印第安人生活在大自然里,了解土地和周围的环境,并不想改变大自然。他们不用太辛苦就能生活得很好。

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.

直到今天,大平原还是一望无际,即使是坐在时速100公里的车上,要穿越大平原也要整整两天的时间。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥,东靠密西西比河,西至落基山脉,是美国的中心地区。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.

维吉尼亚以北也有一些英国早期殖民地,位于今天马萨诸塞州的位置。维吉尼亚的定居者到新大陆来的目的是给英国商人赚钱,而马萨诸塞州的定居者却是为了找寻宗教自由。

There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

不论是农耕还是狩猎,他们每过几年就会换一个地方,让土地有机会休耕,让动物的数量可以继续增加。印第安人熟悉自然生态规律,让大自然为自己服务。

VOICE ONE:

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,其余的地方则是一望无际的草地。

VOICE TWO:

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

英国国王亨利八世脱离了罗马教廷,他的女儿伊丽莎白女王在英国建立了新教,称为英国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟罗马天主教会很相似。

The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.

在新英格兰地区定居的第一批欧洲人数量有限。他们渴望得到土地。由于土地资源丰富,所以印第安人对此并不担心,双方尚可和睦相处。印第安人还教会了欧洲移民耕种和生存的技能。

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New
World.

草地养肥了水牛,水牛是大平原土著印第安人文化的核心要素。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

有些新教徒对这种情况感到不满。有些人希望脱离圣公会,自己成立宗教团体。1606年,司克罗比村一个宗教团体的成员脱离圣公会,离开英国,前往荷兰,他们在荷兰同样遇到了问题,因此决定再次启程,到新大陆去。

The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.

印第安人没有想到的是,欧洲定居者要把土地据为己有,对他们来说,这是难以想象的,就好像要占有空气和云彩一样不可思议。

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.

水牛不仅为印第安人提供了食物,也是大平原地区大多数印第安人宗教的重要部分。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

这些人为宗教的目的而远征,被称为清教徒pilgrims。

The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”

年复一年,踏上北美大陆的欧洲定居者不断增加,他们占据的土地也越来越多。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把外人和猛兽挡在外面,并要求印第安人不要侵犯他们的土地。

VOICE TWO:

苏人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必须品,都能从水牛的身上找到。另外一个印第安人部落把水牛称做“我的家和保护者。”

VOICE ONE:

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

1620年,大约35名清教徒跟其他人一起,乘坐五月花号,离开英国,前往维吉尼亚。但是五月花号没有找到维吉尼亚,而是停在了更靠北的科德角湾。船上的乘客决定就在这里住下来。

The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.

欧洲移民和北美印第安人之间的另外一大问题出在宗教上。在新英格兰定居的欧洲人都是虔诚的基督徒。他们视基督教为唯一的信仰,认为所有人都应该信仰基督。但是他们发现,印第安人对基督教并不感兴趣,也不打算改变自己的信仰。

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.

牛背上厚厚的皮可以用来做帐篷,其他部分的皮可以做衣服和毯子,牛骨头可以做工具,水牛身上的任何地方都不会被浪费掉。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
anything.

为了和平共处,他们觉得有必要定点儿规矩。他们觉得,既然不在维吉尼亚,就不应该受英国的管辖。于是他们制定了所谓的”五月花公约”,这是新大陆上的殖民地制定的第一份规划政府的文件。

No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.

很多欧洲定居者因此觉得,既然印第安人不是基督教徒,那他们就不值得信任。欧洲定居者认为,印第安人没有宗教信仰,所以是邪恶的人群。

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.

没有人知道,刘易斯遇到肖肖尼人的时候,北美大陆上到底有多少头水牛,专家估计可能有六千万到七千五百万头左右。

VOICE TWO:

他们还选举威廉·布雷德福担任普利茅斯殖民地的第一任总督。布雷德福撰写的《关于普利茅斯庄园》让后人了解到了普利茅斯殖民地前三十年的历史。

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.

欧洲定居者不知道的是,美洲土著居民其实是非常虔诚的,他们相信无形的神灵。他们生活在大自然中,相信宇宙万物互相依存,所有部落都有向大自然的创造者祈福的仪式,他们在日常生活中总会看到宇宙创造者留下的痕迹。

跟詹姆斯镇一样,普利茅斯大约一半的定居者也没能熬过第一个冬天。幸存者意外地发现了一个讲英文的印第安人,叫斯考托。他以前曾经被一个英国船长绑架,在英国生活一段时间后又返回了自己的部落。

另外一种动物也对大平原印第安部落的文化起到了关键作用。当时的土著印第安人把这种动物叫做大狗,其实他们说的就是马。

VOICE ONE:

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

清教徒认为斯考托是上帝派来帮助他们的,帮他们跟印第安人沟通,告诉他们哪里能钓到大鱼,最好的作物是什么。斯考托向他们提供了生存必须的一切知识。定居者们11月邀请印第安人来会餐,庆祝他们的成功,也感谢斯考托的帮助。这一传统作为感恩节保留至今。

西班牙人十六世纪来到今天的美国南部之前,北美大陆上原本没有马。土著印第安人都是徒步狩猎和行动的,长途跋涉十分辛苦,更不用说捕猎水牛了。

疾病也给欧洲移民和美洲印第安人带来了摩擦。欧洲移民把天花等当时欧洲常见的疾病带到了美洲大陆。

VOICE ONE:

The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

马的出现彻底改变了他们的生活,给他们提供了交通和运输的方便,也让追踪和捕猎水牛变得更加简单了。有了马,印第安人就能对远方的敌人发动进攻,然后安全返回。拥有马匹的数量,一度成为衡量部落财富的标准。

这些病毒是美洲土著居民从来都没听说过的,他们的免疫系统完全没有抵御能力,很多部落被传染后,死得一个不剩。

还有一些英国定居者到了今天的新英格兰地区,其中一个人数众多的团体叫puritans,也是清教徒,但是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒不同,他们虽然并不认同圣公会,但是也不希望脱离圣公会,而是希望对圣公会进行改革。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.

他们最早是1630年开始离开英国的,到夏天快要结束的时候,已经有一千名清教徒到达了新大陆的东北部。当时的英国国王查理允许他们在马萨诸塞湾住下来。

西班牙定居者大约在1609年的时候骑马到了今天美国西南部新墨西哥州的小镇圣菲。

北美大陆东部沿海各地的欧洲移民和印第安人关系的发展大同小异。他们一开始都能和睦相处,交换各种物资。

VOICE TWO:

It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

没有人知道,圣菲的土著居民是怎么得到第一匹马的,也许他们是用东西换的,也许是发动进攻抢来的。重要的是,没过多久,很多印第安部落都开始买卖和捕获马匹了。

但是随着时间的推移,危机迟早会爆发,要么是某个欧洲移民要求印第安人不要踏上他的土地,要么是某个欧洲定居者或是某个印第安人被杀害,使恐惧逐渐取代了友谊,其中一方会觉得受到了对方的袭击,并奋起反击,历史上的“菲利普王战争”就是一个很好的例子。

随后,清教徒开始大批离开英国,在1630年到1640年期间,先后有两万名清教徒乘船前往新英格兰。他们不顾旅途的危险,希望跟志同道合的人住在一起。他们相信,圣经是上帝的教诲。

By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.

VOICE ONE:

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.

到1750年代的时候,大平原上的所有部落都有了马,而且这些印第安人成了饲养、训练和骑马的行家。

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

然而,英国的清教徒和其他欧洲人在新大陆上发现了跟自己截然不同的人,他们就是美国的印第安土著居民。

Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.

马塔卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的首领,英国人称他为“菲利普王”。第一批欧洲定居者完全是靠了万帕诺亚格部落的帮助,才渡过了第一个严冬。万帕诺亚格部落向欧洲定居者提供食物,还教会他们种植谷物,双方和睦相处了好几年。

VOICE ONE:

大平原地区的印第安人,五岁学骑马,长大以后,每个年轻人都有好几匹马,分别用于工作、狩猎和作战。一个印第安勇士的成功在很大程度上要取决于他和他的坐骑的密切配合。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt

VOICE TWO:

但是好景不长,彼此间的恐惧和缺少了解与日俱增。马塔卡姆的兄弟死于一种欧洲疾病,马塔卡姆认为这都是欧洲人的错。他还目睹了定居者给土地带来的变化,认为他们是在摧毁这片土地。

VOICE TWO:

George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.

卡森林是美国早期艺术家,他到过西部的很多地方,画了很多描写印第安人的作品,据他说,大平原上的印第安人是世界上最出色的骑手,印第安人把手放在马身上的一瞬间,就和马融为一体了。

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

VOICE ONE:

双方间危机不断发生,一名跟定居者住在一起的印第安基督徒被杀,这成了最后的导火索。欧洲定居者发起反击,打死三个印第安人。战争一触即发,从1675年开始,持续了将近两年。这场战争极其残酷,双方都有许多人被打死。研究人员认为,先后一共有六百多个欧洲定居者被打死,还有多达三千名美洲土著居民在冲突中丧生。

The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.

VOICE ONE:

水牛和马匹对大平原地区的印第安人来说至关重要,马的出现简化了狩猎工作,让印第安人能把更多的时间用于美化生活,他们开始在衣服和马用的毯子上设计图案,即使是最常用的物品上也出现了图案设计。

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.

VOICE TWO:

历史学家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是菲利普王战争真正的受害者。他们并没有卷入战争,也没有支持战争的任何一方,然而,欧洲定居者因为出于对印第安人的恐惧,几乎杀死了所有纳拉干西特人。

The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

白种定居者的到来,标志着美洲印第安人水牛和马匹文化的终结。定居者不希望水牛破坏他们的庄稼,于是开始宰杀水牛。到了1885年的时候,大平原地区的印第安人大多都已经被赶到了保留地上居住。

正是这种恐惧、缺乏了解和不愿妥协的对立情绪,塑造了美洲大陆上欧洲定居者跟土著印第安人的关系。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

很多延续至今的部落都在设法保留自己的传统文化,他们通过艺术、音乐和服装,让对美洲历史做出过重大贡献的自己祖先的文化流传下去。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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