美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 战争风云 第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆




This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.




And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.




Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.




As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to






Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were




In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.


Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.


History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.





These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.


The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.


One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.


The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.


They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.


England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.




The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.




In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.




The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new




As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.




The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.




The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.




Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.





Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.


One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.


History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.


Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.


His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.


The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.





American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.




The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.


The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United


The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.


They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.


There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.





King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.


The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.


The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.


Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New


But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.


The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.


These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.


As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.


The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”





About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.


Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.


The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.


The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.


Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change


No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.


They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.





The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.





The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.





The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.






The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.





It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.




By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.


The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.


Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.


Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.




As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt




George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.


And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.


One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.



The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.



History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.



The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.





Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.




And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.


And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.


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