美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 战争风云 美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

第3集 – 英帝国与西班牙王国斗争新陆地

第6集 – 为了谋求教派自由创制新的附庸

第5集 – 亚洲移民和印第安人的冲突




This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.




And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.


Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
this area.


England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.


Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

英帝国是率先个跟Reino de España搏击新陆地的澳大莱切斯特国度。Elizabeth女皇从十七世纪八十时期就从头辅助对新陆地的探险,但是,由于英帝国的能力相比软弱,所以这种争夺最早并非正经公开的。

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.


Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to

清信众是U.K.在北美大洲西北地区–今后的美利哥西维吉妮亚州–定居人数最多的部落之一。清信众1630年启幕时断时续达到。他们在United Kingdom树立了特拉华湾集团。英帝国皇帝把从查理河到梅里Mark河里面包车型大巴土地赐给了他们。

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

英帝国的Gilbert爵士领导了第一遍在新陆地定居的鼎力,不过未能建设布厅长时间定居点,他自己也在回去United Kingdom的途中去世。

The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.


Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.



Gilbert的兄弟雷利爵士百尺竿头更上一层楼,派遣多艘船只到北美黄海岸探险,他把登入的地点命名称叫维吉妮亚Virginia,记忆United Kingdom平生未婚的Elizabeth女皇。

Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.




Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
Roger Williams.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.







美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站,Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.



前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,首假如因为大不列颠及英格兰联合王国1588年受到了Spain海军的抨击。Spain的Philip君主众表决定凌犯大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国,不过U.K.舰船的顽抗,外加强烈尘卷风的影响,使西班牙王国的进攻未有中标。Reino de España从此今后再也不能够阻挡英国的海上探险了。

Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.



然则United Kingdom开采,要赡养这么遥远的债权国,费用实在太大。由此,Elizabeth水晶室女结束了向新陆地的殖民努力。直到他1603年呜乎哀哉后,英帝国才起来认真地在美洲陆上上树立殖民地。

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.




The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing




Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new



London公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名城市居民,这几个人1607年小刑到达,后来创制了United Kingdom在新陆地的第贰个永世性殖民地詹姆士镇。

Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek
land. One was Connecticut. A group led by Puritan minister Thomas Hooker
left Boston in sixteen thirty-six and went west. They settled near the
Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.


The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.


The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.


Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The
king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the
north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what later became the
colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later
became the state of Maine. It never became a colony, however. It
remained a part of Massachusetts until after the United States was




Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.




The area known today as New York State was settled by the Dutch. They
called it New Netherland. Their country was the Netherlands. It was a
great world power, with colonies all over the world. A business called
the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.


The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.


Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.


The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson,
an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed
was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers
in the south.




Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.

The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. They wanted to
earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the
rivers claimed by the Netherlands. People in Europe wanted to buy goods
made from the skins of animals trapped there. In sixteen twenty-six, the
Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The
islands are Manhattan Island and Long Island. Traditional stories say
the Dutch paid for the islands with some trade goods worth about
twenty-four dollars.




Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.

The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America.
But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from
other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on
Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of
people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. It was said you
could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New





The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a
nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. In sixteen sixty-four, the
English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New
Amsterdam and called it New York. That ended Dutch control of the
territory that now is the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.






The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.

Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave. The English permitted
everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch
were just not in control any more.




They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.


The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles
the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to
two friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They called it
New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.


King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.

那片殖民地当时归约克Darry Ring全数,他是大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国圣上查理二世的小朋友。查理二世还把伦敦相邻的土地赐给了四个好朋友,Carter雷特爵士和Berkeley勋爵。他们称其为新泽西。新泽西是英帝国的三个小岛,是Carter雷特爵士出生之处。


United Kingdom君王Henley八世脱离了杜塞尔多夫教廷,他的姑娘Elizabeth女帝在英帝国建构了新教,称为大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟汉堡天主教会很相符。

The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an
assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of
religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon,
people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King
Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But
the colonists were permitted to make their own laws through the elected

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New



多少新教徒对这种气象以为缺憾。某人指望脱离圣公会,本人创建宗教团体。1606年,司克Robby村七个宗教团体的分子脱离圣公会,离开United Kingdom,前往Netherlands,他们在Netherlands一律遭逢了难题,由此决定重新起身,到新陆地去。

The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He
collected taxes from the people who lived there, but permitted them to
govern themselves.

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.





As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.


One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers.
Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that each person has an
inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a
religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.


About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.




Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England
refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They
also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church. Quakers
believe that it is always wrong to kill. So they would not fight even
when they were forced to join the army. They also refuse to promise
loyalty to a king or government or flag or anyone but God.

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.



为了和睦共处,他们以为有重中之重定点儿规矩。他们认为,既然不在维吉妮亚,就不该受United Kingdom的总统。于是他们制订了所谓的”十一月花卉组织议”,那是新陆地上的藩属制订的率先份规划政府的公文。

The English did not like the Quakers for all these reasons. Many Quakers
wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most American
colonies. One Quaker changed this. His name was William Penn.

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.






As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His
father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

跟詹姆士镇扳平,普利茅斯大要上百分之五十的城市居民也没能熬过第四个冬日。幸存者意内地意识了二个讲西班牙语的印第安人,叫斯考托。他早前曾经被二个United Kingdom船长绑架,在英帝国生存一段时间后又赶回了友好的群众体育。



The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

King Charles borrowed money from William’s father. When his father died,
William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In
sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King’s
Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn’s woods.




Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.


The Quakers now had their own colony. It was between the Puritans in the
north and the Anglicans in the south. William Penn said the colony
should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas. That meant
treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant
that anyone could be elected. In most other colonies, people could
believe any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they
were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions
were equal.


Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.


Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.




The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and
produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.


她们最初是1630年起来偏离United Kingdom的,到夏季将在收场的时候,已经有一千名清教徒达到了新陆地的东西边。那时的英帝国国君查尔斯允许她们在弗吉尼亚湾住下来。


The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.


And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.


The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

进而,清教徒起首成批离开United Kingdom,在1630年到1640年以内,前后相继有三万名清教徒乘船前往高雄爱尔兰。他们不管不顾旅途的危急,希望跟同气相求的人住在一齐。他们相信,圣经是上天的辅导。


The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.



Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.



This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.



And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.


One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.



History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.


This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.



This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.


And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.


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