美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 战争风云 美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站第5集 – 欧洲移民和印第安人的冲突

第3集 – 英帝国与西班牙王国斗争新陆地

第6集 – 为了谋求教派自由创制新的附庸

第5集 – 亚洲移民和印第安人的冲突

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

VOICE ONE:

Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
this area.

VOICE ONE:

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

VOICE ONE:

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

英帝国是率先个跟Reino de España搏击新陆地的澳大莱切斯特国度。Elizabeth女皇从十七世纪八十时期就从头辅助对新陆地的探险,但是,由于英帝国的能力相比软弱,所以这种争夺最早并非正经公开的。

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.

前天大家要汇报一段令人优伤的遗闻。

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
England.

清信众是U.K.在北美大洲西北地区–今后的美利哥西维吉妮亚州–定居人数最多的部落之一。清信众1630年启幕时断时续达到。他们在United Kingdom树立了特拉华湾集团。英帝国皇帝把从查理河到梅里Mark河里面包车型大巴土地赐给了他们。

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

英帝国的Gilbert爵士领导了第一遍在新陆地定居的鼎力,不过未能建设布厅长时间定居点,他自己也在回去United Kingdom的途中去世。

The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.

亚洲城里人来到北美陆上后,跟在此边生活了数千年的本地人都市人产生冲突,二者的教派、信仰和文化差距产生了霸气的吹拂。

Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

清信徒也是道教教徒,但是她们不确认圣公会,希望对圣公会厉行改良,因而决定离开英帝国。他们在新陆地定居下来后,能够根据自身的心愿生活,并日益演化为规模最大的宗教团体。到了1690年的时候,密苏里州现本来就有了七万人。

VOICE TWO:

Gilbert的兄弟雷利爵士百尺竿头更上一层楼,派遣多艘船只到北美黄海岸探险,他把登入的地点命名称叫维吉妮亚Virginia,记忆United Kingdom平生未婚的Elizabeth女皇。

Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
peaceful.

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

清教徒以为,他们的宗派是头一无二纯正的宗派,全数人都应该成为信众。他们同期主见,教会总领应该担负地点管事人,殖民地的全体人都应该出钱辅教师会。他们以为,政党监护人的天职之一正是要告知公众应该信仰什么。

在后天的北美陆地西部沿海,也正是当今美利坚联邦合众国处处的地点,居住着繁多印第安人的部落,他们讲分裂的言语,有个别从事农耕,有个别以狩猎为生,有个别处处交战,某些则热爱和平。

1585年,差十分少100名男子在前几日U.S.威斯康星州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。那么些人一年后回去英帝国,别的一堆人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,此番来的人里多了巾帼和孩子。然则,赖利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年抢救物质资源终于达到的时候,四个都市人都找不到了。

Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
Roger Williams.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

唯独,也可以有人不确认这个成为殖民地总领的清教徒的见地,罗Gill·Williams牧师便是里面之一。

那几个群众体育相当多持续到现在,在那之中囊括塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米诺尔人和彻罗基人等等。

历国学家到现在不能分明到底爆发了什么职业。有色金属斟酌所究显得,定居者中最稀少部分沙参与了本土的印第安人群众体育。

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站,Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

跟全体清信徒相似,罗吉尔·Williams也认为其他亚洲宗教都以荒诞的,印第安当地人城市居民的迷信也是谬误的,不过她不容许强制他人接收自个儿的眼光,以为以道教的名义去处置或杀人是犯罪行为,感到独有教会成员才有一钱不受出钱支持教会。

第一堆欧洲移民过来北美新大陆在此以前的比超级多年,这几个印第安人群众体育就早就确立起了个其他学问和笃信。

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,首假如因为大不列颠及英格兰联合王国1588年受到了Spain海军的抨击。Spain的Philip君主众表决定凌犯大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国,不过U.K.舰船的顽抗,外加强烈尘卷风的影响,使西班牙王国的进攻未有中标。Reino de España从此今后再也不能够阻挡英国的海上探险了。

Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

罗吉尔·威廉姆Stone过演说和发布文章来宣传本身的观念。他著述提出,因为信仰差异而惩办别人是大谬不然的。他还提议,南美洲都市人是在行窃印第安人的土地,英帝国天子未有权力把属于印第安人的土地划拨给臣民,让他俩在这里边定居。

墨西哥湾岸的印第安人还具备高度发达的交易连串。商量人口发掘,北美大街小巷的印第安部落曾从事布满的物物沟通。

然则United Kingdom开采,要赡养这么遥远的债权国,费用实在太大。由此,Elizabeth水晶室女结束了向新陆地的殖民努力。直到他1603年呜乎哀哉后,英帝国才起来认真地在美洲陆上上树立殖民地。

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

在印第安纳湾殖民地清信徒带头大哥的强迫下,罗吉尔·Williams1636年偏离内华达南下。他从本地印第安人手中买下一片土地,建构了一个叫福州的新都会。英帝国议会授权他以塔尔萨为首府,创办四个新殖民地–内布Russ加,那一个殖民地选取种种宗教信仰的人,富含天主教、贵格会教徒、犹太人,以致是无神论者。

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing
ideas.

澳洲人和北美东海岸印第安人以内第叁回有记载的相会产生在十四世纪。那时候,法兰西和西班牙王国Bath克地区的渔家横渡北冰洋,在北美东边沿海地点寻觅鲸鱼。他们在岸上架设有时营地,平时跟地面包车型大巴印第安人调换货色,还雇他们办事,双方都是为这种关涉挺不错。

1606年,英帝国的新圣上詹姆士一世批准两家商铺在Virginia自立门户殖民地。

罗吉尔·Williams还相信政教抽离,这种新理念日前几日益发展成了美利哥最首要的施政观念之一。

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
world.

VOICE ONE:

亚洲捕鱼者也曾多次试图在该地创立永世性定居点,不过都因为不堪冬辰的冰凉而以战败告终。

London公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名城市居民,这几个人1607年小刑到达,后来创制了United Kingdom在新陆地的第贰个永世性殖民地詹姆士镇。

Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek
land. One was Connecticut. A group led by Puritan minister Thomas Hooker
left Boston in sixteen thirty-six and went west. They settled near the
Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.

VOICE ONE:

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.

广大人为了土地,离开弗吉尼亚,创设了任何殖民地,康涅迪格正是内部之一。一些人在清教徒牧师Thomas·胡克的教导下于1636年间距奥克兰向南走,在将近康涅迪格河的地点落户下来。

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

然则,詹姆士镇的居住者出兵不顺,因为尚未及时播种,所以没过多长期粮食就吃完了。他们又缺少农耕和建筑手艺,第贰个冬日下来,James镇的都市人一病不起过半。

Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The
king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the
north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what later became the
colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later
became the state of Maine. It never became a colony, however. It
remained a part of Massachusetts until after the United States was
created.

1620年,亚洲的率先批永恒性城里人来到了台北爱尔兰地区。他们盼望跟印第安人友好共处。他们须要从印第安人这里换取食品。他们还要也清楚地掌握,自身软弱,一旦发生冲突,根本不是印第安人的挑衅者。

VOICE TWO:

除此以外一些人在伊利诺伊以北创建了家中。大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国国王把北面包车型大巴一大片土地赐给八个亲密的朋友。Mason创建了后来的佛罗里达殖民地,戈吉斯创设了新生的佛罗里达,但密西西比始终未有前行产生独立的属国,依然是密苏里的一某些,直到美利坚合众国建国截止。

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

VOICE TWO:

只是,比一点也不慢,难点就不可防止地出现了。双方对土地的例外见解引起了铁汉的冲突,带给了随后几百余年都无计可施解决的主题素材。

London的商贩们对所在国艰苦的活着胸无点墨,他们完全希望城里人去索求白金,查究本地的河道,希望找到通向北方的水路。此中一名城里人知道那是大错特错的。他的名字叫约翰·Smith。他帮城里人盖房子,向印第安人学种庄稼,可是,詹姆士镇的城市居民每一年照旧继续死于病痛、饥饿和印第安人的入侵。

The area known today as New York State was settled by the Dutch. They
called it New Netherland. Their country was the Netherlands. It was a
great world power, with colonies all over the world. A business called
the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.

VOICE TWO:

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.

Netherlands殖民者定居在后天的米利坚伦敦州就地,他们把这里称为新Netherlands。那个时候荷兰王国实力雄厚,在世界上超级多地方都创立了所在国,大多数债权国都归“荷兰王国西印度共和国公司”全体。

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

在1606年到1622年间,London公司共计向Virginia送去了七千名城市居民,个中五千多个人都未能活下来。

The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson,
an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed
was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers
in the south.

对于欧洲市民来讲,土地的首要性非同小可。在大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国等亚洲国度,土地代表资源,具有数以亿计土地能给一人带来庞大的资源和权力。

VOICE ONE:

外国人在北美陆地上据有的土地要归功于U.K.背包客亨利·哈得孙。荷兰领地坐落于南边清信徒和南方圣公会烟草种植者之间。

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.

The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. They wanted to
earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the
rivers claimed by the Netherlands. People in Europe wanted to buy goods
made from the skins of animals trapped there. In sixteen twenty-six, the
Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The
islands are Manhattan Island and Long Island. Traditional stories say
the Dutch paid for the islands with some trade goods worth about
twenty-four dollars.

过来北美新大陆的数不胜数都市人都以北美洲的穷人,属于个别宗教派别,根本不可能具有和睦的土地。他们来到新陆地后,开掘此处的土地好像根本就从不主人。

历教育家说,假诺不是地点波瓦坦印第安人的佑助,来自英帝国的居住者只怕一个也活不下来。印第安人给她们食品,教他们怎么样在山林里生活,还告知她们哪些种庄稼,如何盖房屋。

英国人并不想在那片土地上落户,他们只想致富。荷兰王国西印度集团沿水路建立了重重交易站,并于1626年从本地印第安人手里买下了多个岛屿,也等于前不久的曼哈顿岛和长岛。据书上说,那五个岛是用价值大约25日元的事物换成的。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.

The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America.
But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from
other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on
Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of
people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. It was said you
could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New
Amsterdam.

大不列颠及英格兰联合王国的商号供给吸引定居者到新陆地去,于是就用土地作为奖赏。对于众几人的话,那实在是梦想成真,成了她们改变生活的空子,土地让她们有机缘累积能源和权杖。

那个市民采纳了印第安人的支援,但后来又依附军队抢夺印第安人的事物。1622年,本地的印第安部落为保证团结的土地向城市居民发动袭击,打死了3叁十九个城市居民。定居者发动反攻,通透到底摧毁了栖身在Virginia沿海的印第安部落。

Netherlands西印度共和国公司愿意找人在岛上定居,不过奥地利人都不甘于离开澳洲,Netherlands殖民地因而向任何国家和其它殖民地的人开放。他们在曼哈顿岛上创建了三个小镇,叫新吉隆坡。十分的快,这里就挤满了从非常远的地点坐船来的人,传闻那个时候在新洛杉矶能听到18种不一样的语言。

VOICE ONE:

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a
nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. In sixteen sixty-four, the
English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New
Amsterdam and called it New York. That ended Dutch control of the
territory that now is the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

那一个市民意识到,他们必须要自身自足,不可能依赖外人。1624年,詹姆士镇已经初具规模,以至早先通过种植和行销一种新的农作物–烟草–来致富了。

1655年,新荷兰王国殖民地的总督占有了附近德Lava湾的二个瑞典王国属国。1664年,新法兰克福又被德国人占有,改称London,自此停止了荷兰对最近纽约、新泽西和德Lava一带的殖民调控。

可是,美洲的印第安人却感觉,土地不归于任何人,是大家一道享受的财物。他们感到,任何人都能够在一片土地上住下去,种庄稼,以此养家活口。

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.

Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave. The English permitted
everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch
were just not in control any more.

印第安人生活在大自然里,了然土地和附近的条件,并不想改善大自然。他们不要太辛劳就会生活得很好。

维吉妮亚以北也可以有局地英帝国最早殖民地,坐落于明天蒙大牛州的岗位。维吉妮亚的居住者到新陆地来的目标是给英帝国际商业信用贷款银行户赚钱,而马萨诸塞州的市民却是为了找出宗教自由。

而是,德国人同意原来的殖民者留下,让他俩分享宗教自由,所以一大半比利时人都未曾间距。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.

VOICE ONE:

The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles
the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to
two friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They called it
New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.

不管是农耕照旧狩猎,他们每过几年就能换二个地方,让土地有机会休耕,让动物的数目能够世袭追加。印第安人耳熏目染自然生态规律,让大自然为团结劳动。

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.

那片殖民地当时归约克Darry Ring全数,他是大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国圣上查理二世的小朋友。查理二世还把伦敦相邻的土地赐给了四个好朋友,Carter雷特爵士和Berkeley勋爵。他们称其为新泽西。新泽西是英帝国的三个小岛,是Carter雷特爵士出生之处。

VOICE TWO:

United Kingdom君王Henley八世脱离了杜塞尔多夫教廷,他的姑娘Elizabeth女帝在英帝国建构了新教,称为大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟汉堡天主教会很相符。

The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an
assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of
religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon,
people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King
Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But
the colonists were permitted to make their own laws through the elected
assembly.

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New
World.

Carter雷特爵士和伯克利勋爵制订了一份治理新泽西的政坛布署,创设了三个城里人代表会议,有限支撑宗教自由,何况不管宗教信仰,男人一律享有投票的权利。没过多长期,新泽西属国就住满了欧洲到处的移民。查理太岁后来接管了那片地点,派皇家总督统治,可是位置的殖民者能够通过代表会议活动立法。

在新英格兰地区定居的率先批欧洲人多少少于。他们神魂颠倒取得土地。由于土地财富丰裕,所以印第安人对此并不惦念,双方逼迫能够天伦叙乐。印第安人还教会了北美洲移民耕种和生活的本领。

多少新教徒对这种气象以为缺憾。某人指望脱离圣公会,本人创建宗教团体。1606年,司克Robby村七个宗教团体的分子脱离圣公会,离开United Kingdom,前往Netherlands,他们在Netherlands一律遭逢了难题,由此决定重新起身,到新陆地去。

The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He
collected taxes from the people who lived there, but permitted them to
govern themselves.

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.

大不列颠及英格兰联合王国君主对她的具有殖民地都做出了近乎的结构,要求殖民者纳税,但允许他们自治。

印第安人未有想到的是,欧洲定居者要把土地占有,对他们的话,那是无缘无故的,就如要据有空气和云朵相通出乎意料。

这么些人工宗教的目标而远征,被誉为清信众pilgrims。

VOICE TWO:

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

VOICE TWO:

One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers.
Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that each person has an
inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a
religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.

寒暑易节,踏上北美新大陆的欧洲城市居民不断追加,他们占用的土地也尤为多。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把客人和猛兽挡在外面,并供给印第安人实际不是入侵他们的土地。

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.

贵格会教徒在大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国备受排挤。他们自称教友派,相信每一种人心目都有一束电灯的光,辅导他们左近上帝。他们以为,没有供给由宗教总领来报告我们如何才是没错的,所以贵格派未有牧师。

VOICE ONE:

1620年,大概35名清教徒跟其余人一同,乘坐7月花号,离开英帝国,前往维吉妮亚。可是八月花号未有找到维吉妮亚,而是停在了更靠北的科德角湾。船上的旅客决定就在这里地住下去。

Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England
refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They
also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church. Quakers
believe that it is always wrong to kill. So they would not fight even
when they were forced to join the army. They also refuse to promise
loyalty to a king or government or flag or anyone but God.

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.

贵格派信众相信人生来平等,拒却确认大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国沙皇高人一筹,拒却纳税支撑圣公会。他们认为,在其余情状下杀人都以乱七八糟的,所以就算被迫入伍,也不会动用武力。他们还不肯向主公、政党、国旗,或是除了天神外的任哪个人或物宣誓效忠。

南美洲移民和北美印第安人里面包车型客车此外第一次全国代表大会主题素材出在宗教上。在新英格兰定居的美洲人都以真心实意的基督徒。他们视伊斯兰教为独一的归依,以为全部人都应该信仰基督。但是他们开掘,印第安人对东正教并不感兴趣,也不筹算更换本人的笃信。

为了和睦共处,他们以为有重中之重定点儿规矩。他们认为,既然不在维吉妮亚,就不该受United Kingdom的总统。于是他们制订了所谓的”十一月花卉组织议”,那是新陆地上的藩属制订的率先份规划政府的公文。

The English did not like the Quakers for all these reasons. Many Quakers
wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most American
colonies. One Quaker changed this. His name was William Penn.

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
anything.

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.

由于上述各样原因,法国人不爱好贵格派。相当多贵格派教徒希望离开大不列颠及英格兰联合王国,可是过多美洲属国都不款待他们。叁个叫做威廉·潘的贵格派信徒改造了这一体。

超级多南美洲定居者由此认为,既然印第安人不是耶稣教徒,那他们就不值得信赖。南美洲定居者认为,印第安人未有宗教信仰,所以是阴毒的人群。

他们还大选William·Bray德福担当普利茅斯殖民地的第一任总督。Bray德福撰写的《关于普利茅斯庄园》让儿孙精晓到了普利茅斯殖民地前二十年的野史。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His
father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

跟詹姆士镇扳平,普利茅斯大要上百分之五十的城市居民也没能熬过第四个冬日。幸存者意内地意识了二个讲西班牙语的印第安人,叫斯考托。他早前曾经被二个United Kingdom船长绑架,在英帝国生存一段时间后又赶回了友好的群众体育。

William·潘的老爸是查理国君的好相恋的人,是圣公会信众,可是William·潘长大后信教了贵格派。

欧洲定居者不领会的是,美洲原住民城市居民实际是老大真诚的,他们相信无形的神人。他们活着在天地间中,相信宇宙万物相互依存,全体部落都有向大自然的创设者祈福的仪仗,他们在平常生活中总会看出宇宙制造者留下的划痕。

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

King Charles borrowed money from William’s father. When his father died,
William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In
sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King’s
Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn’s woods.

VOICE ONE:

清教徒感到斯考托是天公派来协理她们的,帮她们跟印第安人关系,告诉她们何地能钓到大鱼,最棒的作物是怎么样。斯考托向她们提供了生存必需的一切文化。定居者们10月特邀印第安人来会餐,庆祝她们的中标,也多谢斯考托的佑助。这一观念作为感恩节保留现今。

查理天子已经向William·潘的老爹借钱。阿爸死后,William·潘要求国王用美洲次大陆的土地偿债。1681年,查理皇上于是把耶路撒冷希伯来赐给了William·潘。那片土地被命名称为Pennsylvania,意即“潘的林地”。

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

VOICE ONE:

The Quakers now had their own colony. It was between the Puritans in the
north and the Anglicans in the south. William Penn said the colony
should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas. That meant
treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant
that anyone could be elected. In most other colonies, people could
believe any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they
were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions
were equal.

病痛也给亚洲移民和美洲印第安人带给了摩擦。南美洲移民把天花等立刻澳大比什凯克联邦广大的病症带到了美洲次大陆。

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

贵格派教徒因而有了同心协力的藩属。那片殖民地夹在北面包车型大巴清教徒和南面的圣公会教徒之间。William·潘说,清华的每一种人都要遵照贵格派教徒的信教生存,那就表示平等对待全部人,尊重全数宗教信仰。在其它殖民地里,大家固然享受教派信仰的妄动,然而唯有多数教会的分子技巧投票或是当选公职,而在印度孟买理工,全数宗教一律平等,全部宗教的人都能担任内阁官员。

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

还应该有一点英帝国定居者到了前些天的新英格兰地区,当中一位数众多的团伙叫puritans,也是清教徒,可是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒分化,他们纵然并不承认圣公会,可是也不愿意脱离圣公会,而是希望对圣公会举行改革机制。

VOICE TWO:

这么些病毒是美洲原住民人市民根本都没传闻过的,他们的免疫性系统完全未有抵挡本事,超多部落被污染后,死得二个不剩。

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and
produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.

VOICE TWO:

她们最初是1630年起来偏离United Kingdom的,到夏季将在收场的时候,已经有一千名清教徒达到了新陆地的东西边。那时的英帝国国君查尔斯允许她们在弗吉尼亚湾住下来。

VOICE TWO:

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

北美陆地南部沿海外市的亚洲移民和印第安人涉嫌的进步齐头并进。他们一带头都能天伦之乐,交流各个物质资源。

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

进而,清教徒起首成批离开United Kingdom,在1630年到1640年以内,前后相继有三万名清教徒乘船前往高雄爱尔兰。他们不管不顾旅途的危急,希望跟同气相求的人住在一齐。他们相信,圣经是上天的辅导。

不过随着时间的推迟,危害迟早会产生,要么是某些亚洲移民须要印第安人不要踏上她的土地,要么是有些亚洲定居者或是某些印第安人被杀害,使恐惧渐渐取代了友谊,在那之中一方会感觉非常受了对方的袭击,并奋起回手,历史上的“Philip王战役”正是三个很好的例子。

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.

VOICE ONE:

可是,大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国的清信众和其余欧洲人在新陆地上开采了跟本身完全不一致的人,他们正是U.S.的印第安土著人城市居民。

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

VOICE ONE:

Mata卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的主脑,匈牙利人称她为“Philip王”。第一堆欧洲定居者完全部都是靠了万帕诺亚格部落的帮扶,才走过了第叁个严月。万帕诺亚格部落向北美洲定居者提供食物,还教会她们栽植稻谷,双方合家喜悦了一些年。

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

VOICE TWO:

只是好景非常短,相互间的畏惧和紧缺领会比比皆已。Mata卡姆的弟兄死于一种亚洲病魔,Mata卡姆以为那都以欧洲人的错。他还亲眼亲眼看见了都市人给土地带来的转换,以为他们是在摧毁那片土地。

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.

VOICE TWO:

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

双方间危害持续发生,一名跟定居者住在一同的印第安基督徒被杀,那成了最终的导火索。南美洲都市人发起反扑,打死多个印第安人。战役千钧一发,从1675年启幕,持续了临近四年。本场战乱最佳无情,双方都有好四个人被打死。商讨职员认为,前后相继一共有三百多个南美洲定居者被打死,还会有多达八千名美洲本地人城市居民在冲突中身亡。

VOICE ONE:

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.

历教育家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是Philip王战斗真正的被害者。他们并未卷入战祸,也未有扶持战役的任何一方,然则,亚洲市民因为出于对印第安人的畏惧,差不离杀死了有着纳拉干西特人。

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

幸好这里种恐惧、缺少了然和不愿退让的周旋心情,营造了美洲新大陆上澳国城市居民跟原住民印第安人的关系。

VOICE TWO:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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