美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 美高梅棋牌游戏官网网站 第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地

第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地



第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地

第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆

1649 – 1660

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

PURITAN INFLUENCE

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

After King Charles I was executed in 1649, England became a republic
called the Commonwealth, with Oliver Cromwell at its head.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

Cromwell, a Protestant and a Puritan, believed that people should lead
pious lives and dress in a plain and practical way.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.

His opponents, the Royalists, supported a return to the monarchy and
wore elaborate clothing inspired by French fashion.

Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
this area.

VOICE ONE:

图片 1

VOICE ONE:

England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
fifteen seventies.

A painting by Jacobus Vrel

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.

英国是第一个跟西班牙争夺新大陆的欧洲国家。伊丽莎白女王从十六世纪七十年代就开始支持对新大陆的探险,不过,由于英国的力量比较薄弱,所以这种争夺最初并不是正面公开的。

Cromwell’s Puritans based their dress on Dutch traditions, since the
Dutch United Provinces (now the Netherlands) was a strongly Protestant
country as well as a wealthy, influential one.

清教徒是英国在北美大陆东北地区–现在的美国马萨诸塞州–定居人数最多的群体之一。清教徒1630年开始陆续抵达。他们在英国成立了马萨诸塞湾公司。英国国王把从查尔斯河到梅里马克河之间的土地赐给了他们。

Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
England.

Many style features associated with his period — such as linen collars
covering the shoulders and the widespread popularity of black — are
Dutch in origin.

The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.

英国的吉尔伯特爵士领导了第一次在新大陆定居的努力,但是没能建立长期定居点,他本人也在返回英国的途中去世。

Dark clothes with little or no decoration were favored.

清教徒也是新教信徒,但是他们不认同圣公会,希望对圣公会厉行改革,因此决定离开英国。他们在新大陆定居下来后,可以按照自己的愿望生活,并逐渐发展为规模最大的宗教团体。到了1690年的时候,马萨诸塞州已经有了五万人。

Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.

English Puritans, a branch of Protestants, established a colony in
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in what is now the US, in 1620 that would
influence all aspects of American culture, including fashion.

Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.

吉尔伯特的兄弟雷利爵士继续努力,派遣多艘船只到北美东海岸探险,他把登陆的地方命名为Virginia维吉尼亚,纪念英国终身未婚的伊丽莎白女王。

图片 2

清教徒认为,他们的宗教是唯一纯正的宗教,所有人都应该成为信徒。他们同时主张,教会领袖应该担任地方官员,殖民地的所有人都应该出钱支持教会。他们觉得,政府官员的职责之一就是要告诉民众应该信仰什么。

In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.

Prince Ottavio Piccolomini

Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
Roger Williams.

1585年,大约100名男子在今天美国北卡罗来纳州沿海的罗厄诺克岛上定居下来。这些人一年后返回英国,另外一群人次年又前往罗厄诺克岛,这次来的人里多了妇女和儿童。然而,雷利爵士派来的供给船迟迟不到,1590年救援物资终于抵达的时候,一个定居者都找不到了。

MILITARY DRESS

不过,也有人不认同这些成为殖民地领袖的清教徒的意见,罗杰·威廉姆斯牧师就是其中之一。

History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.

The English Civil War, from 1642 to 1651, came with a new style military
dress.

VOICE TWO:

历史学家至今不能确定到底发生了什么事情。有研究显示,定居者中至少有一部分人加入了当地的印第安人部落。

Parliamentarian Colonel Hutchinson appeared in the English House of
Commons in “a habit which was pretty rich but grave” (a dark doublet
decorated with gold and silver points), but ordinary soldiers wore
plainer clothies.

Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.

VOICE TWO:

Buff-colored leather coats were worn by Cromwell’s New Model Army and by
those involved in conflicts in Europe.

跟所有清教徒一样,罗杰·威廉姆斯也认为其他欧洲宗教都是错误的,印第安土著居民的信仰也是错误的,但是他不同意强迫他人接受自己的看法,认为以基督教的名义去惩罚或杀人是罪孽,认为只有教会成员才有义务出钱支持教会。

One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.

图片 3

Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.

前往罗厄诺克岛的供给船延误航程,主要是因为英国1588年遭到了西班牙海军的攻击。西班牙的菲利普国王决定入侵英国,但是英国舰只的抵抗,外加强烈风暴的影响,使西班牙的进攻没有得逞。西班牙从此再也无法阻挡英国的海上探险了。

Oliver Cromwell

罗杰·威廉姆斯通过演说和发表文章来宣扬自己的理念。他著书指出,因为信仰不同而惩罚别人是错误的。他还提出,欧洲定居者是在盗取印第安人的土地,英国国王没有权力把属于印第安人的土地划拨给臣民,让他们在那里定居。

England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.

公元1649年 – 1660年

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.

但是英国发现,要供养如此遥远的殖民地,花销实在太大。因此,伊丽莎白女王停止了向新大陆的殖民努力。直到她1603年去世后,英国才开始认真地在美洲大陆上建立殖民地。

教徒影响

在马萨诸塞湾殖民地清教徒领袖的逼迫下,罗杰·威廉姆斯1636年离开马萨诸塞南下。他从当地印第安人手中买下一片土地,建立了一个叫普罗维登斯的新城市。英国议会授权他以普罗维登斯为首府,创办一个新殖民地–罗德岛,这个殖民地接纳各种宗教信仰的人,包括天主教、贵格会教徒、犹太人,甚至是无神论者。

VOICE ONE:

1649年查尔斯一世被处决之后,英国成为联邦共和国,奥利弗克伦威尔是它的元首。

Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing
ideas.

In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.

克伦威尔,一位新教徒也是清教徒,相信人们应当以平凡实际的方式去遵循虔诚的生活与穿着。

罗杰·威廉姆斯还相信政教分离,这种新观念日后逐渐发展成了美国最重要的治国理念之一。

1606年,英国的新国王詹姆斯一世批准两家公司在维吉尼亚建立殖民地。

他的对手们,保皇党,支持君主制回归并且穿着以法国时尚为灵感的精致服饰。

VOICE ONE:

The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
world.

图片 4

Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek
land. One was Connecticut. A group led by Puritan minister Thomas Hooker
left Boston in sixteen thirty-six and went west. They settled near the
Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.

伦敦公司1606年向维吉尼亚送去了100名定居者,这些人1607年五月抵达,后来创建了英国在新大陆的第一个永久性殖民地詹姆斯镇。

Nicolaes maes笔下的当时服装。

很多人为了土地,离开马萨诸塞,建立了其他殖民地,康涅迪格就是其中之一。一些人在清教徒牧师托马斯·胡克的带领下于1636年离开波士顿向西走,在靠近康涅迪格河的地方定居下来。

The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.

克伦威尔的清教徒风格,基于他身着的荷兰传统服饰,因为荷兰联合州(现在荷兰)是一个强大的新教国家,同时也极具影响力。

Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The
king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the
north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what later became the
colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later
became the state of Maine. It never became a colony, however. It
remained a part of Massachusetts until after the United States was
created.

然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者出师不利,因为没有及时播种,所以没过多久粮食就吃完了。他们又缺乏农耕和建筑技能,第一个冬天下来,詹姆斯镇的居民死亡过半。

许多风格特征与他在位的时代相关,例如覆盖肩膀的亚麻领与黑色的广泛流行,都起源自荷兰。

另外一些人在马萨诸塞以北建立了家园。英国国王把北面的一大片土地赐给两个好友。梅森建立了后来的新罕布什尔殖民地,戈吉斯建立了后来的缅因,但缅因始终没有发展成为独立的殖民地,仍旧是马萨诸塞的一部分,直到美国建国为止。

VOICE TWO:

少量或没有装饰的深色服饰受到青睐。

VOICE TWO:

The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.

英国清教徒是新教徒的一个分支,1620年在普利茅斯建立了一个殖民地,就是现在美国的马赛诸塞州,它影响了美国文化的方方面面,包括时尚。

The area known today as New York State was settled by the Dutch. They
called it New Netherland. Their country was the Netherlands. It was a
great world power, with colonies all over the world. A business called
the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.

伦敦的商人们对殖民地艰苦的生活一无所知,他们一心希望定居者去寻找黄金,探索当地的河道,希望找到通往东方的水路。其中一名定居者知道这是错误的。他的名字叫约翰·史密斯。他帮定居者盖房子,向印第安人学种庄稼,然而,詹姆斯镇的定居者每年还是继续死于疾病、饥饿和印第安人的袭击。

图片 5

荷兰殖民者定居在今天的美国纽约州一带,他们把那里称为新荷兰。当时荷兰实力雄厚,在世界上很多地方都建立了殖民地,大部分殖民地都归“荷兰西印度公司”所有。

The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.

艺术家Pieter de
hooch作品,描述了当时17世纪荷兰本国的生活。从一对行走的夫妻可以看到黑色外套下,女子精美的银色长袍与上衣的花边,领子为当时流行的亚麻领。

The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson,
an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed
was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers
in the south.

在1606年到1622年间,伦敦公司一共向维吉尼亚送去了六千名定居者,其中四千多人都没能活下来。

军用服饰

荷兰人在北美大陆上占据的土地要归功于英国探险家亨利·哈得孙。荷兰领地位于北部清教徒和南部圣公会烟草种植者之间。

VOICE ONE:

英国内战,1642年到1651年,出现了一种新式的军用服装。

The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. They wanted to
earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the
rivers claimed by the Netherlands. People in Europe wanted to buy goods
made from the skins of animals trapped there. In sixteen twenty-six, the
Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The
islands are Manhattan Island and Long Island. Traditional stories say
the Dutch paid for the islands with some trade goods worth about
twenty-four dollars.

History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.

议会上校哈奇森出现在英国下议院,被评价是“穿着喜好相当丰富但严肃“(一款金银装饰的神色上衣夹克),而普通士兵穿着更平淡。

荷兰人并不想在这片土地上定居,他们只想赚钱。荷兰西印度公司沿水路建立了很多交易站,并于1626年从当地印第安人手里买下了两个岛屿,也就是今天的曼哈顿岛和长岛。据说,这两个岛是用价值大约24美元的东西换来的。

历史学家说,如果不是当地波瓦坦印第安人的帮助,来自英国的定居者恐怕一个也活不下来。印第安人给他们食物,教他们如何在树林里生活,还告诉他们如何种庄稼,如何盖房子。

色彩浓烈的皮外套是克伦威尔的新模范军,同时穿着他们参与了欧洲军事冲突。

The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America.
But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from
other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on
Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of
people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. It was said you
could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New
Amsterdam.

The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.

图片 6

荷兰西印度公司希望找人在岛上定居,但是荷兰人都不愿意离开欧洲,荷兰殖民地因此向其他国家和其他殖民地的人开放。他们在曼哈顿岛上建立了一个小镇,叫新阿姆斯特丹。很快,这里就挤满了从很远的地方坐船来的人,据说当时在新阿姆斯特丹能听到18种不同的语言。

这些定居者接受了印第安人的帮助,但后来又依靠武力抢夺印第安人的东西。1622年,当地的印第安部落为维护自己的土地向定居者发动袭击,打死了340个定居者。定居者发动反击,彻底摧毁了居住在维吉尼亚沿海的印第安部落。

克伦威尔新模范军

In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a
nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. In sixteen sixty-four, the
English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New
Amsterdam and called it New York. That ended Dutch control of the
territory that now is the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.

The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.

1655年,新荷兰殖民地的总督占领了附近德拉瓦湾的一个瑞典殖民地。1664年,新阿姆斯特丹又被英国人占领,改称纽约,从此结束了荷兰对目前纽约、新泽西和德拉瓦一带的殖民控制。

这些定居者意识到,他们必须自己自足,不能依靠别人。1624年,詹姆斯镇已经初具规模,甚至开始通过种植和销售一种新的作物–烟草–来盈利了。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave. The English permitted
everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch
were just not in control any more.

The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
religious freedom.

不过,英国人允许原来的殖民者留下,让他们享受宗教自由,所以大部分荷兰人都没有离开。

维吉尼亚以北也有一些英国早期殖民地,位于今天马萨诸塞州的位置。维吉尼亚的定居者到新大陆来的目的是给英国商人赚钱,而马萨诸塞州的定居者却是为了找寻宗教自由。

The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles
the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to
two friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They called it
New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.

VOICE ONE:

这片殖民地当时归约克伯爵所有,他是英国国王查尔斯二世的兄弟。查尔斯二世还把纽约附近的土地赐给了两个好友,卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勋爵。他们称其为新泽西。新泽西是英国的一个岛屿,是卡特雷特爵士出生的地方。

King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.

The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an
assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of
religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon,
people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King
Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But
the colonists were permitted to make their own laws through the elected
assembly.

英国国王亨利八世脱离了罗马教廷,他的女儿伊丽莎白女王在英国建立了新教,称为英国教会,也叫圣公会。但是圣公会跟罗马天主教会很相似。

卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勋爵制定了一份治理新泽西的政府规划,建立了一个定居者代表会议,保证宗教自由,而且不论宗教信仰,男性一律享有投票权。没过多久,新泽西殖民地就住满了欧洲各地的移民。查尔斯国王后来接管了这片地区,派皇家总督统治,但是当地的殖民者可以通过代表会议自行立法。

Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New
World.

The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He
collected taxes from the people who lived there, but permitted them to
govern themselves.

有些新教徒对这种情况感到不满。有些人希望脱离圣公会,自己成立宗教团体。1606年,司克罗比村一个宗教团体的成员脱离圣公会,离开英国,前往荷兰,他们在荷兰同样遇到了问题,因此决定再次启程,到新大陆去。

英国国王对他的所有殖民地都做出了类似的安排,要求殖民者纳税,但允许他们自治。

These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.

VOICE TWO:

这些人为宗教的目的而远征,被称为清教徒pilgrims。

One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers.
Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that each person has an
inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a
religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.

VOICE TWO:

贵格会教徒在英国十分受排斥。他们自称教友派,相信每个人心里都有一束灯光,指引他们走近上帝。他们认为,没有必要由宗教领袖来告诉大家什么才是正确的,所以贵格派没有牧师。

About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
find Jamestown.

Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England
refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They
also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church. Quakers
believe that it is always wrong to kill. So they would not fight even
when they were forced to join the army. They also refuse to promise
loyalty to a king or government or flag or anyone but God.

1620年,大约35名清教徒跟其他人一起,乘坐五月花号,离开英国,前往维吉尼亚。但是五月花号没有找到维吉尼亚,而是停在了更靠北的科德角湾。船上的乘客决定就在这里住下来。

贵格派教徒相信人生来平等,拒绝承认英国国王高人一等,拒绝纳税支持圣公会。他们认为,在任何情况下杀人都是不对的,所以即使被迫入伍,也不会使用武力。他们还拒绝向国王、政府、国旗,或是除了上帝外的任何人或物宣誓效忠。

The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.

The English did not like the Quakers for all these reasons. Many Quakers
wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most American
colonies. One Quaker changed this. His name was William Penn.

为了和平共处,他们觉得有必要定点儿规矩。他们觉得,既然不在维吉尼亚,就不应该受英国的管辖。于是他们制定了所谓的”五月花公约”,这是新大陆上的殖民地制定的第一份规划政府的文件。

鉴于上述种种原因,英国人不喜欢贵格派。很多贵格派教徒希望离开英国,但是很多美洲殖民地都不欢迎他们。一个名叫威廉·潘的贵格派教徒改变了这一切。

They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
Plymouth Plantation.

VOICE ONE:

他们还选举威廉·布雷德福担任普利茅斯殖民地的第一任总督。布雷德福撰写的《关于普利茅斯庄园》让后人了解到了普利茅斯殖民地前三十年的历史。

William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His
father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.

As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.

威廉·潘的父亲是查尔斯国王的好朋友,是圣公会信徒,但是威廉·潘长大后皈依了贵格派。

跟詹姆斯镇一样,普利茅斯大约一半的定居者也没能熬过第一个冬天。幸存者意外地发现了一个讲英文的印第安人,叫斯考托。他以前曾经被一个英国船长绑架,在英国生活一段时间后又返回了自己的部落。

King Charles borrowed money from William’s father. When his father died,
William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In
sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King’s
Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn’s woods.

The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
Thanksgiving holiday.

查尔斯国王曾经向威廉·潘的父亲借钱。父亲死后,威廉·潘要求国王用美洲大陆的土地还债。1681年,查尔斯国王于是把宾夕法尼亚赐给了威廉·潘。这片土地被命名为Pennsylvania,意即“潘的林地”。

清教徒认为斯考托是上帝派来帮助他们的,帮他们跟印第安人沟通,告诉他们哪里能钓到大鱼,最好的作物是什么。斯考托向他们提供了生存必须的一切知识。定居者们11月邀请印第安人来会餐,庆祝他们的成功,也感谢斯考托的帮助。这一传统作为感恩节保留至今。

The Quakers now had their own colony. It was between the Puritans in the
north and the Anglicans in the south. William Penn said the colony
should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas. That meant
treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant
that anyone could be elected. In most other colonies, people could
believe any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they
were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions
were equal.

VOICE ONE:

贵格派教徒因此有了自己的殖民地。这片殖民地夹在北面的清教徒和南面的圣公会信徒之间。威廉·潘说,宾夕法尼亚的每个人都要按照贵格派教徒的信仰生活,这就意味着平等对待所有人,尊重所有宗教信仰。在其他殖民地里,人们虽然享受宗教信仰的自由,但是只有多数教会的成员才能投票或是当选公职,而在宾夕法尼亚,所有宗教一律平等,所有教派的人都能出任政府官员。

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.

VOICE TWO:

还有一些英国定居者到了今天的新英格兰地区,其中一个人数众多的团体叫puritans,也是清教徒,但是跟普利茅斯殖民地的清教徒不同,他们虽然并不认同圣公会,但是也不希望脱离圣公会,而是希望对圣公会进行改革。

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and
produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.

The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.

VOICE TWO:

他们最早是1630年开始离开英国的,到夏天快要结束的时候,已经有一千名清教徒到达了新大陆的东北部。当时的英国国王查理允许他们在马萨诸塞湾住下来。

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

VOICE TWO:

The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.

随后,清教徒开始大批离开英国,在1630年到1640年期间,先后有两万名清教徒乘船前往新英格兰。他们不顾旅途的危险,希望跟志同道合的人住在一起。他们相信,圣经是上帝的教诲。

The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.

然而,英国的清教徒和其他欧洲人在新大陆上发现了跟自己截然不同的人,他们就是美国的印第安土著居民。

VOICE ONE:

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
Rich Kleinfeldt

VOICE TWO:

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.

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