第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地
第6集 – 为了寻求宗教自由创建新的殖民地
第3集 – 英国与西班牙争夺新大陆
1649 – 1660
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.
After King Charles I was executed in 1649, England became a republic
called the Commonwealth, with Oliver Cromwell at its head.
Cromwell, a Protestant and a Puritan, believed that people should lead
pious lives and dress in a plain and practical way.
And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.
And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about the first permanent English settlements in North America.
His opponents, the Royalists, supported a return to the monarchy and
wore elaborate clothing inspired by French fashion.
Today, we tell about the movement of European settlers throughout
northeastern America. And we tell how the separate colonies developed in
England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the
New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But
Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the
A painting by Jacobus Vrel
The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in
the northeastern area called Massachusetts. They began arriving in
sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in
England. The king had given the company an area of land between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers.
Cromwell’s Puritans based their dress on Dutch traditions, since the
Dutch United Provinces (now the Netherlands) was a strongly Protestant
country as well as a wealthy, influential one.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did
not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to
Many style features associated with his period — such as linen collars
covering the shoulders and the widespread popularity of black — are
Dutch in origin.
The Puritans were Protestants who did not agree with the Anglican
Church. The Puritans wanted to change the church to make it more holy.
They were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became
the largest religious group. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people
were living in Massachusetts.
Dark clothes with little or no decoration were favored.
Gilbert’s half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh
sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He
called the land Virginia to honor England’s unmarried Queen Elizabeth.
English Puritans, a branch of Protestants, established a colony in
Plymouth, Massachusetts, in what is now the US, in 1620 that would
influence all aspects of American culture, including fashion.
Puritans thought their religion was the only true religion and everyone
should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead
the local government, and all people in the colony should pay to support
the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government
leaders to tell people what to believe.
In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island,
off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers
returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next
year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply
ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there
in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found.
Prince Ottavio Piccolomini
Some people did not agree with the Puritans who had become leaders of
the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named
History experts still are not sure what happened. Some research suggests
that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that
lived in the area.
The English Civil War, from 1642 to 1651, came with a new style military
Parliamentarian Colonel Hutchinson appeared in the English House of
Commons in “a habit which was pretty rich but grave” (a dark doublet
decorated with gold and silver points), but ordinary soldiers wore
Roger Williams believed as all Puritans did that other European
religions were wrong. He thought the Native Indian religions were wrong
too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him.
He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of
Christianity. And he thought that only church members should pay to
support their church.
Buff-colored leather coats were worn by Cromwell’s New Model Army and by
those involved in conflicts in Europe.
One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack
of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King
Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English
ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a
result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration.
Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a
book saying it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs.
Then he said that the European settlers were stealing the Indians’ land.
He said the king of England had no right to permit people to settle on
land that was not his, but belonged to the Indians.
England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely
costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not
until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious
efforts to start colonies in America.
公元1649年 – 1660年
The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger
Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south.
He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The
Parliament in England gave him permission to establish a new colony,
Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island
accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers,
Jews and even people who denied the existence of God.
Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection
to a church. This idea of separating church and state was very new.
Later it became one of the most important of all America’s governing
In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two
business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area
claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move.
The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in
sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and
founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new
Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek
land. One was Connecticut. A group led by Puritan minister Thomas Hooker
left Boston in sixteen thirty-six and went west. They settled near the
Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.
The colony seemed about to fail from the start. The settlers did not
plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked
the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than
half the settlers died during the first winter.
Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The
king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the
north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what later became the
colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later
became the state of Maine. It never became a colony, however. It
remained a part of Massachusetts until after the United States was
The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about
living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for
gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East.
One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He
helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the
local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year
from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks.
The area known today as New York State was settled by the Dutch. They
called it New Netherland. Their country was the Netherlands. It was a
great world power, with colonies all over the world. A business called
the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.
The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between
sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died
during that time.
The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson,
an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed
was between the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers
in the south.
The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. They wanted to
earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the
rivers claimed by the Netherlands. People in Europe wanted to buy goods
made from the skins of animals trapped there. In sixteen twenty-six, the
Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The
islands are Manhattan Island and Long Island. Traditional stories say
the Dutch paid for the islands with some trade goods worth about
History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without
the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers
food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan
Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the
land for building.
The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America.
But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from
other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on
Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of
people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. It was said you
could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New
The settlers accepted the Indians’ help. Then, however, the settlers
took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the
local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.
Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by
destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia’s coast.
In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a
nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. In sixteen sixty-four, the
English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New
Amsterdam and called it New York. That ended Dutch control of the
territory that now is the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.
The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and
survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The
Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was
even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco.
Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave. The English permitted
everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch
were just not in control any more.
The other early English settlements in North America were much to the
north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who
settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled
in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money
for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking
The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles
the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to
two friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. They called it
New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.
King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic
Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant
religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the
Anglican Church. The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of
the Roman Catholic Church.
The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an
assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of
religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon,
people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King
Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But
the colonists were permitted to make their own laws through the elected
Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church
and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of
one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican
Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland.
They found problems there too, so they decided to move again…to the New
The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He
collected taxes from the people who lived there, but permitted them to
These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to
people who travel for religious purposes.
One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers.
Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that each person has an
inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a
religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.
About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called
the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But
the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north,
on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to
Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England
refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They
also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church. Quakers
believe that it is always wrong to kill. So they would not fight even
when they were forced to join the army. They also refuse to promise
loyalty to a king or government or flag or anyone but God.
The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that
would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not
under English control since they did not land in Virginia. So they wrote
a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first
such plan ever developed in the New World.
The English did not like the Quakers for all these reasons. Many Quakers
wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most American
colonies. One Quaker changed this. His name was William Penn.
They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of
their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the
Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of
William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His
father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.
As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the
first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke
English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea
captain and had lived in England before returning to his people.
King Charles borrowed money from William’s father. When his father died,
William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In
sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King’s
Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn’s woods.
The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it
possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them
the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow
them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to
survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of
November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help.
Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the
The Quakers now had their own colony. It was between the Puritans in the
north and the Anglicans in the south. William Penn said the colony
should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas. That meant
treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant
that anyone could be elected. In most other colonies, people could
believe any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they
were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions
Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New
England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the
Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want
to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more
holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England.
This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and
produced by Paul Thompson. This is Sarah Long.
The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen
thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in
the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles,
had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area.
And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.
The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen
thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They
risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among
people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the
Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God.
The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people
in the New World. They were America’s native Indians. That will be our
story next week.
This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is
And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Voice of
America Special English program about the history of the United States.